Ghana is endowed with substantial mineral resources and has a well-established mining sector, which has grown considerably in recent years to represent an important pillar of the Ghanaian economy.
The minerals extractive industry currently has thirteen large-scale mining companies and, over three hundred registered small scale mining groups and ninety mine support service companies.
Agriculture has long been an important sector of the economy, employing about 50 percent of the labour force. At the end of 2014, the sector contributed an estimated 19.9 percent to the country’s GDP (Ghana Statistical Service). Cocoa is the major export crop, followed by timber and non-traditional products such as horticulture, fish/sea foods and pineapple. The Agriculture sector continued its trend of increasing growth, growing at 5.3 percent in 2014 compared with 5.2 percent in 2013 and 2.3 percent in 2012. This was mainly on account of growth in the Crop, Livestock sub sector and the Fishing sub sector. In addition, the recent investments made in the development of the Agricultural Industry bodes well for sustained growth in the Industry.
Ghana has been undergoing a process of financial sector restructuring and transformation as an integral part of its Vision 2015 strategy. Prior to 2003, the Bank of Ghana, Ghana’s Central Bank, operated a three-pillar banking model with all banks licensed as either development, merchant and commercial banking. In February 2003, the Bank of Ghana introduced Universal Banking which allowed the banks to undertake commercial, development, merchant or investment banking without requiring separate licenses. This has levelled the playing field, and opened up the banking system to competition, product innovation and entry.
The country may be classified into three main agriculture zones. The forest vegetation zone: consists of parts of Western, Eastern, Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Volta Regions. The northern savannah vegetation zone: The Upper East, Upper West and Northern Region; the coastal savannah: includes the Central, Greater Accra and parts of Volta Region. The northern savannah zone is the largest agriculture zone. Most of the nation’s supply of rice, millet, sorghum, yam, tomatoes, cattle, sheep, goats and cotton are grown in the region.
The health industry comprises all firms directly involved in the production and promotion of health care. These include all firms (both public and private) operating in the health market and are involved in the manufacturing of health products, provision of health care, health enhancing services and generation of knowledge in support of health.
The health industry as a new concept has not been recognized and analyzed. The capacity of the local manufacturing industry is under-utilized and the potential of Ghana’s herbal and traditional medicines is largely untapped.The role of this industry in wealth creation is in sustaining health services and creating jobs.
The government of Ghana has encouraged the development of non-traditional industries over the past decade in order to diversify the country's export base. Horticulture has been a central and a major benefactor of these efforts. Four main horticultural enterprises can be found in Ghana. They are: Vegetable crop production, Fruit crop production, Landscape horticulture, Floriculture, Nursery stock production. The major crops that are mainly produced in the horticultural sector include the following: Pineapple, Mango, Papaya, Banana, Citrus, Chili pepper, Tomatoes, Plantain, Other fruits and vegetables. Production of exotic (European) vegetables such as lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, onion, spinach, tomato, carrot, French bean, turnip, cucumber, beet, and radish is concentrated in and around the principal towns and cities of the country.
Agriculture is the main driving force behind Ghana's economy, accounting for approximately 42% of the country's GDP and employing 54% of its work force. Ghana is the world's largest cocoa producer after Cote d'Ivoire. Ghanaian cocoa is grown by small-holder farmers. cash crops are an agricultural crops which are grown for sale to return a profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm. The term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family.
Textile manufacturing in Ghana is an industry consisting of ginneries and textile mills producing batik, wax cloth, fancy printed cloth and Kente cloth. Firms have located in Ghana to serve local and regional markets with printed African patterned fabrics. The industry has shown signs of significant growth in recent years, promoting high-quality traditionally designed fabrics as "Made in Ghana" to niche markets, especially the US.
Ghanaian textile companies prefer to locate within designated industrial areas to take advantage of Ghana's free zone regime and stable operating environment.
Road transport is by far the dominant carrier of freight and passengers in Ghana’s land transport system. It carries over 95 percent of all passenger and freight traffic. Most communities, including the rural areas are accessible by road transport. The roads are classified under three categories: trunk roads, urban roads and feeder roads. The Ghana Highway Authority, established in 1974 has responsibility for developing and maintaining the country’s trunk road network totaling 13,367 km, which makes up 33 percent of Ghana’s total road network of 40,186 km. There are railway service connections in Accra, Kumasi, and Takoradi, and the major mining areas, to the sea ports.