Administrative corruption is generally defined as profiteering from public posts. It includes a public officer’s abuse of roles, powers, or resources in public bureaucracies.3 Ghana law defines a public official to include any person holding an office by election or appointment under any enactment or under powers conferred by any enactment.
Employees of Administering Agencies are therefore “public officers” for purposes of administrative corruption as these persons are appointed under an enactment and exercise their powers pursuant to an enactment.
A public officer who, to do or for doing an act required of him or her as a public officer, secretly accepts, or agrees or offers secretly to accept any valuable consideration for his or her personal benefit is presumed by law to have acted corruptly. The presumption of corruption by a public officer therefore applies irrespective of whether the valuable consideration was received before or after the act by the public officer on account of the public office.
The process of acquiring licenses and permits for business operations are key determinant of private sector development and economic growth and for that matter, the nature and mode of implementation of these licenses and permits have great effects on the private sector. Any delays caused in acquiring these licenses and permits add to the cost of doing business.